BACKGROUNDCosmetic soft tissue fillers are a popular minimally invasive procedure. Necrosis is a rare yet devastating complication of soft tissue fillers. To date, the relationship between soft tissue fillers and necrosis has not been fully described.OBJECTIVETo systematically compile published cases of soft tissue fillers resulting in necrosis and collect data regarding the injection, treatment, and outcome.METHODS AND MATERIALSUsing PRISMA protocol, a comprehensive search for soft tissue filler necrosis was performed using no time constraints, resulting in 97 articles encompassing 192 cases of soft tissue filler necrosis containing individual-level data.RESULTSOf the cases analyzed, 66.1% had progressed to necrosis, whereas 33.9% of patients had impending necrosis. Necrosis most commonly resulted from injection of the nasolabial fold (32.4%, n = 88). The filler material most commonly used was hyaluronic acid (71.9%, n = 138). Hyaluronidase was used most frequently as an initial treatment agent (19.1%, n = 88). Forty-three patients (22.4%) with necrosis had a prior minor procedure or surgery.CONCLUSIONThis systematic review is an extensive overview of necrosis as a complication of soft tissue fillers. It serves as a reference tool for any clinician who injects soft tissue fillers and any provider who encounters soft tissue filler necrosis.
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