Background: Soft-tissue movement has challenged the use of noninvasive skin-based markers that are assumed to be rigidly attached to the underlying bony landmarks. We assessed soft-tissue movement in multiple foot segments by calculating the relative changes in the intermarker distances of the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot segments during the early, middle, and late stances of walking compared with the intermarker distances measured while participants remained still during standing. Methods: Seven healthy young adults with no previous lower-limb injury were tested while walking barefoot at a comfortable pace. Skin-based markers were placed on three foot regions (hindfoot-calcaneus, midfoot-navicular, and forefoot-first to fifth metatarsals). A motion system sampled at 120 Hz was used to capture the foot markers during the stance phase of walking. Results: Soft-tissue movement was found in the forefoot region characterized by shortened distances, specifically during early (breaking) stance and late (propulsion) stance. In the hindfoot region, soft-tissue movement was characterized by shortened and elongated distances during the early and late stance periods, respectively. All of the foot regions showed the least intermarker distance changes during midstance. Conclusions: The dynamics of soft-tissue movement in multiple foot segments were characterized by the greatest changes in the intermarker distances in the forefoot and hindfoot during the early and late stance phases and the least changes in the foot segments during midstance. The results provide a feasible and accessible measurement for assessing soft-tissue movement in the foot when skin-based motion markers are used.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association|
|State||Published - 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine