Solution synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons

Mikhail Shekhirev, Alexander Sinitskii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Bottom-up fabrication of narrow strips of graphene, also known as graphene nanoribbons or GNRs, is an attractive way to open a bandgap in semimetallic graphene. In this chapter, we review recent progress in solutionbased synthesis of GNRs with atomically precise structures. We discuss a variety of atomically precise GNRs and highlight theoretical and practical aspects of their structural design and solution synthesis. These GNRs are typically synthesized through a polymerization of rationally designed molecular precursors followed by a planarization through a cyclodehydrogenation reaction. We discuss various synthetic techniques for polymerization and planarization steps, possible approaches for chemical modification of GNRs, and compare the properties of GNRs that could be achieved by different synthetic methods. We also discuss the importance of the rational design of molecular precursors to avoid isomerization during the synthesis and achieve GNRs that have only one possible structure. Significant attention in this chapter is paid to the methods of material characterization of solution-synthesized GNRs. The chapter is concluded with the discussion of the most significant challenges in the field and the future outlook.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20160108
JournalPhysical Sciences Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 15 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


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