Sound-field amplification to increase compliance to directions in students with ADHD

John W. Maag, Jean M. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This study determined the effects of sound-field amplification (SFA) on the speed with which students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed teacher directions. A multiple baseline design was used with 3 elementary-aged students with ADHD to assess the effects of SFA across 4 types of directions: (a) task demand (e.g., get out your math book); (b) high preference activity (e.g., line up for recess); (c) alpha commands (clear, direct, specific instructions); and (d) beta commands (vague multiple instructions given simultaneously). The speed with which all participants followed all 4 types of directions increased. Implications for this easy, relatively inexpensive device as well as areas for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-253
Number of pages16
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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