Spatial-frequency Analysis of the Anatomical Differences in Hamstring Muscles

Scott K. Crawford, Kenneth S. Lee, Greg R. Bashford, Bryan C. Heiderscheit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Spatial frequency analysis (SFA) is a quantitative ultrasound method that characterizes tissue organization. SFA has been used for research involving tendon injury, but may prove useful in similar research involving skeletal muscle. As a first step, we investigated if SFA could detect known architectural differences within hamstring muscles. Ultrasound B-mode images were collected bilaterally at locations corresponding to proximal, mid-belly, and distal thirds along the hamstrings from 10 healthy participants. Images were analyzed in the spatial frequency domain by applying a two-dimensional Fourier Transform in all 6.5 × 6.5 mm kernels in a region of interest corresponding to the central portion of the muscle. SFA parameters (peak spatial frequency radius [PSFR], maximum frequency amplitude [Mmax], sum of frequencies [Sum], and ratio of Mmax to Sum [Mmax%]) were extracted from each muscle location and analyzed by separate linear mixed effects models. Significant differences were observed proximo-distally in PSFR (p =.039), Mmax (p <.0001), and Sum (p <.0001), consistent with architectural descriptions of the hamstring muscles. These results suggest that SFA can detect regional differences of healthy tissue structure within the hamstrings—an important finding for future research in regional muscle structure and mechanics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-108
Number of pages9
JournalUltrasonic Imaging
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • anatomy
  • hamstrings
  • musculoskeletal
  • spatial frequency analysis
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Spatial-frequency Analysis of the Anatomical Differences in Hamstring Muscles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this