Speech sound production in 2-year-olds who are hard of hearing

Sophie E. Ambrose, Lauren M. Unflat Berry, Elizabeth A. Walker, Melody Harrison, Jacob Oleson, Mary Pat Moellera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of the study was to (a) compare the speech sound production abilities of 2-year-old children who are hard of hearing (HH) to children with normal hearing (NH), (b) identify sources of risk for individual children who are HH, and (c) determine whether speech sound production skills at age 2 were predictive of speech sound production skills at age 3. Method: Seventy children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss who use hearing aids and 37 age- and socioeconomic status-matched children with NH participated. Children's speech sound production abilities were assessed at 2 and 3 years of age. Results: At age 2, the HH group demonstrated vowel production abilities on par with their NH peers but weaker consonant production abilities. Within the HH group, better outcomes were associated with hearing aid fittings by 6months of age, hearing loss of less than 45 dB HL, stronger vocabulary scores, and being female. Positive relationships existed between children's speech sound production abilities at 2 and 3 years of age. Conclusion: Assessment of early speech sound production abilities in combination with demographic, audiologic, and linguistic variables may be useful in identifying HH children who are at risk for delays in speech sound production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-104
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican journal of speech-language pathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014


  • Amplification
  • Children
  • Hearing aids
  • Hearing loss
  • Outcomes
  • Speech production

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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