Standardization of an antiviral pipeline for human norovirus in human intestinal enteroids demonstrates nitazoxanide has no to weak antiviral activity

Miranda A. Lewis, Nicolás W. Cortés-Penfield, Khalil Ettayebi, Ketki Patil, Gurpreet Kaur, Frederick H. Neill, Robert L. Atmar, Sasirekha Ramani, Mary K. Estes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In immunocompetent hosts, symptoms usually resolve within 3 days; however, in immunocompromised persons, HuNoV infection can become persistent, debilitating, and sometimes life-threatening. There are no licensed therapeutics for HuNoV due to a near half-century delay in its cultivation. Treatment for chronic HuNoV infection in immunosuppressed patients anecdotally includes nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial licensed for treatment of parasite-induced gastroenteritis. Despite its off-label use for chronic HuNoV infection, nitazoxanide has not been clearly demonstrated to be an effective treatment. In this study, we standardized a pipeline for antiviral testing using multiple human small intestinal enteroid lines representing different intestinal segments and evaluated whether nitazoxanide inhibits replication of five HuNoV strains in vitro. Nitazoxanide did not exhibit high selective antiviral activity against any HuNoV strain tested, indicating it is not an effective antiviral for HuNoV infection. Human intestinal enteroids are further demonstrated as a model to serve as a preclinical platform to test antivirals against HuNoVs to treat gastrointestinal disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Volume67
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • antivirals
  • enteroids
  • genotypes
  • human norovirus
  • intestinal organoids
  • nitazoxanide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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