Statistical prediction models for identifying the microbial diversity and interactions due to fixed periodontal appliances

Suganya Chandrababu, Dhundy Bastola, Sheela Premaraj

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Like in the gut, the subgingival microbiota plays a crucial role in oral hygiene, health, and cariogenic diseases. Human activities like diet, antibiotics, and periodontal treatments alter the bacterial communities, metabolism, and functions in the oral cavity, leading to a dysbiotic state and changes in the plaques of orthodontic patients. Fixed periodontal appliances hinder oral hygiene and cause changes in the dental plaques influencing the subgingival microbiota. However, the microbial species diversity and complexity pose a great challenge in understanding the taxa's community distribution patterns and their role in oral health. In this research, we analyze the subgingival microbial samples from individuals with fixed dental appliances (metal/clear) using an in silico approach. We employ exploratory hypothesis-driven multivariate and regression analysis to shed light on the microbial community and its functional fluctuations due to dental appliances used and identify risk associated with complex disease phenotypes. Our findings confirm the changes in oral microbiota composition due to the presence and type of fixed orthodontal devices. We identified 7 main periodontic pathogens including Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes whose abundances were significantly altered due to the presence and type of fixed appliances used. In the case of metal braces, the abundances of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Candidatus saccharibacteria and Spirochaetes significantly increased, while the abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria decreased. However, in individuals With clear braces, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Candidatus saccharibacteria increased. The highest abundance value (P-value=0.004 < 0.05) was observed with Bacteroidetes in individuals with the metal appliance, which is associated with gingivitis, periodontitis, endodontic infections, and odontogenic abscesses. Overall, the bacterial abundances decrease with clear type and increase with metal type of braces. Regression analysis further validated the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results, supporting the hypothesis that the presence and type of the fixed oral appliances significantly alter the bacterial abundance and composition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of 2021 8th International Conference on Bioinformatics Research and Applications, ICBRA 2021
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Pages19-26
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781450384261
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 11 2021
Event8th International Conference on Bioinformatics Research and Applications, ICBRA 2021 - Virtual, Online, Germany
Duration: Sep 11 2021Sep 13 2021

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Conference

Conference8th International Conference on Bioinformatics Research and Applications, ICBRA 2021
Country/TerritoryGermany
CityVirtual, Online
Period9/11/219/13/21

Keywords

  • Bacterial abundance
  • Fixed orthodontal appliances
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Oral microbiota
  • Regression analysis.
  • Statistical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Software

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