Status of Vitamin A and Related Compounds and Clinical Outcomes in Maternal-Infant Pairs in the Midwestern United States

Corrine Hanson, Marina Schumacher, Elizabeth Lyden, Jeremy Furtado, Matthew Van Ormer, Elizabeth McGinn, Katherine Rilett, Caleb Cave, Rebecca Johnson, Kara Weishaar, Ann Anderson-Berry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for pregnant women, and other Vitamin A-related compounds, including lutein and lycopene, have been associated with maternal-infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the status of Vitamin A and related compounds in maternal-infant pairs at the time of delivery, and to determine its impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 189 mother-infant pairs. Concentrations of lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, carotenes, and retinol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Descriptive statistics was calculated and Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord measurements. Kruskal-Wallis and independent samples t test were used to compare measures between retinol groups. Linear and logistic regression models were used to adjust for relevant confounders. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ten percent of mothers had serum retinol concentrations ≤0.70 μmol/L; 80% of infants had serum retinol concentrations ≤0.70 μmol/L. Low maternal retinol concentrations were associated with maternal anemia (p = 0.04) and a trend toward low birth weight (p = 0.06). Maternal and infant concentrations of Vitamin A compounds were highly correlated. After adjustment for confounders, maternal lutein was associated with a C-section (p = 0.03) and a diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome in the infant (p = 0.02). Maternal lycopene was associated with growth parameters in the infant. Conclusions: As Vitamin A-related compounds are modifiable by diet, future research determining the clinical impact of these compounds is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-182
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Lutein
  • Lycopene
  • Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Vitamin A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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