Strain rate dependent orthotropic properties of pristine and impulsively loaded porcine temporomandibular joint disk

Mark W. Beatty, Matthew J. Bruno, Laura R. Iwasaki, Jeffrey C. Nickel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to characterize the tensile stress-strain behavior of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk with respect to collagen orientation and strain rate dependency. The apparent elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, and strain at maximum stress were measured at three elongation rates (0.5, 50, and 500 mm/min) for dumbbell-shaped samples oriented along either anteroposterior or mediolateral axes of the disks. In order to study the effects of impact-induced fissuring on the mechanical behavior, the same properties were measured along each orientation at an elongation rate of 500 mm/min for disks subjected to impulsive loads of 0.5 N s. The results suggested a strongly orthotropic nature to the healthy pristine disk. The values for the apparent modulus and ultimate strength were 10-fold higher along the anteroposterior axis (p ≤ 0.01), which represented the primary orientation of the collagen fibers. Strain rate dependency was evident for loading along the anteroposterior axis but not along the mediolateral axis. No significant differences in any property were noted between pristine and impulsively loaded disks for either orientation (p > 0.05). The results demonstrated the importance of choosing an orthotropic model for the TMJ disk to conduct finite element modeling, to develop failure criteria, and to construct tissue-engineered replacements. Impact-induced fissuring requires further study to determine if the TMJ disk is orthotropic with respect to fatigue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-34
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001


  • Cartilage
  • Elastic modulus
  • Impulse loading
  • Temporomandibular joint disk
  • Tensile strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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