In carcinogenicity studies with PPAR γ and α/γ agonists, urinary bladder tumors have been reported in Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) and Charles River Sprague-Dawley (SD) but not Wistar (WI) rats, with urolithiasis purported to be the inciting event. In two 3-month studies, the authors investigated strain-related differences in urine composition by sampling urine multiple times daily. Urine pH, electrolytes, creatinine, protein, citrate and oxalate levels, and serum citrate were assessed; urine sediment was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HSD rats had significantly higher urine calcium than SD or WI rats, primarily as calcium phosphate-containing precipitate. When compared to SD rats, HSD rats had lower urine volume, higher urine protein, and a comparable (week 4) to lower (week 13) burden of MgNH4PO4 aggregates. Relative to WI rats, HSD rats had higher urine protein and magnesium and lower serum and urine citrate. Overall, the susceptibility to urolithiasis in male rats was HSD > SD > WI; this was likely due to strain-related differences in the amount of urine protein (a nidus for crystal formation), lithogenic ions, citrate (an inhibitor of lithogenesis), and/or volume. Strain-related differences in urine composition need to be considered when interpreting the outcome of studies with compounds that alter urine composition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology