Student perceptions and performance in a traditional, flipped classroom, and online introductory soil science course

Salvador Ramirez, Samantha Teten, Martha Mamo, Carol Speth, Timothy Kettler, Meghan Sindelar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Innovative didactive strategies such as online learning and flipped classroom can improve student performance while maximizing university resources and personnel. Assessing how students perceive courses designed using these strategies, as well as perform within them, is becoming increasingly important. An introductory soil science course at a 4-year land-grant university was taught (1) face-to-face (FTF, n = 110) with one 50-minute lecture per week and a 2-hour lab twice per week, using (2) flipped classroom (FC, n = 31) design in which most instruction occurred online with a 2-hour lab once per week, and (3) fully and asynchronously online (OL, n = 23). Students completed an end of the semester survey designed to assess perceptions of course utility, the utility of course components, and engagement level in the course. Proportional odds regression models and log odds ratios were used to assess how student perceptions of and performance in this course were influenced by teaching method or student class standing. Class standing had the strongest influence on responses to perception and engagement questions, while teaching method minimally influenced responses to perception and engagement questions. Furthermore, students with the largest odds of expressing potentially less positive perceptions–in this case sophomores–also had the largest odds of performing poorly in the course. These results suggest that FC and OL are viable options which can extend university resources, impact, and accessibility, and that student perceptions of college courses, which in this study varied by class standing, can influence their performance. Supplemental data for this article is available online at

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)130-141
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Geoscience Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • Blended learning
  • flipped classroom
  • online learning
  • student attitude
  • student perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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