Subgingival microbiome colonization and cytokine production during early dental implant healing

Jeffrey B. Payne, Paul G. Johnson, Car Reen Kok, João C. Gomes-Neto, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Marian J. Schmid, Robert W. Hutkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Little is known about longitudinal development of the peri-implant subgingival microbiome and cytokine production as a new sulcus forms after dental implant placement. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to evaluate simultaneous longitudinal changes in the oral microbiome and cytokine production in the developing peri-implant sulcus compared to control natural teeth. Four and 12 weeks after implant placement and abutment connection, a dental implant and a natural tooth were sampled in 25 patients for subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF [around teeth] and peri-implant crevicular fluid [PICF] around implants). DNA from plaque samples was extracted and sequenced using Illumina-based 16S rRNA sequencing. GCF and PICF samples were analyzed using a customized Milliplex human cytokine and chemokine magnetic bead panel. Beta diversity analysis revealed that natural teeth and implants had similar subgingival microbiomes, while teeth had greater alpha diversity than implants. At the genus level, however, few differences were noted between teeth and dental implants over 12 weeks. Specifically, Actinomyces and Selenomonas were significantly elevated around teeth versus dental implants at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks, while Corynebacterium and Campylobacter were significantly elevated only at 4 weeks around teeth. The only difference between PICF and GCF biomarkers was significantly elevated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels around teeth versus dental implants at the 4-week visit. The subgingival microbiome and cytokine production were similar between teeth and implants during early healing, suggesting that these profiles are driven by the patient following dental implant placement and are not determined by anatomical niche.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00527-17
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017


  • Cytokines
  • Dental implants
  • Microbiome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology


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