Surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage

Pierre B. Fayad, Issam A. Awad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represents 8 to 15% of all strokes in the United States and 20 to 30% of all strokes in Japan and China. Although ICH represents a relatively small fraction of total strokes, it is a formidable disease, with a 30-day mortality rate two- to sixfold higher than that for ischemic stroke. Furthermore, it is a major cause of disability, with only 20% of patients becoming independent at 6 months. The most common risk factors for ICH are age, hypertension, and amyloid angiopathy, which are associated with damage to and weakening of the arterial/arteriolar wall leading to vessel rupture. The pathology is a dynamic one that continues to evolve over the first few days after onset. In 20 to 30% of ICH, clot volume increases over the first 24 hours and is generally associated with neurologic worsening. The final outcome from ICH is related not only to clot volume, compression, and destruction but also to potential neurotoxicity from the blood degradation products and associated neuronal ischemia. The treatment of ICH has been one of the most controversial and least well-studied areas from a medical or surgical perspective. Surgical treatment has evolved over the years and can be grouped into open and stereotactically guided surgery for hematoma evacuation. Seven thousand operations per year are performed in the United States for hematoma evacuation, although this approach has not been adequately investigated. Adjuvant medical therapies with neuroprotective agents require further investigation and may potentially have additive benefits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S69-S73
Issue number3 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Sep 1998
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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