Synthesis and characterization of an anti-apoptotic immunosuppressive compound for improving the outcome of islet transplantation

Hao Wu, Jayaprakash Pagadala, Charles Ryan Yates, Duaned Miller, Ram I. Mahato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a commonly used immunosuppressive drug for human islet transplantation. However, it is toxic to transplanted islets, causing primary nonfunction. We recently synthesized a quinic acid derivative, 1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-N-propylcyclohexanecarboxamide (KZ41), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. We hypothesized that the conjugate (E)-2,3,5-trihydroxy-5-(propylcarbamoyl) cyclohexyl 6-(4-ethoxy-6-methoxy-7- methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoate (JP-3-110), which is composed of KZ41 and MPA through esterification, can suppress the immune rejection while inducing less toxicity. Early characterization showed that the solubility of JP-3-110 was significantly higher than that of MPA, though JP-3-110 was still poorly water-soluble. The ester bond connecting KZ41 and MPA is stable for a limited duration (<4 weeks). Pharmacological studies demonstrated that JP-3-110 induced significantly less activated caspase 3 and apoptotic cell death of human islets than MPA, while maintaining an equally potent immunosuppressive effect. A similar immunosuppressive effect of JP-3-110 and MPA in humanized NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NOD scid gamma, NSG) mice with adoptively transferred human immunity was observed. Taken together, our results demonstrated that JP-3-110 can be a safer immunosuppressive agent for human islet transplantation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2036-2044
Number of pages9
JournalBioconjugate Chemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 18 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry

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