Synthesis and in vitro analysis of novel gallium tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin and its long-acting nanoparticle as a potent antimycobacterial agent

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Abstract

Bacterial heme uptake pathways offer a novel target for antimicrobial drug discovery. Recently, gallium (Ga) porphyrin complexes were found to be effective against mycobacterial heme uptake pathways. The goal of the current study is to build on this foundation and develop a new Ga(III) porphyrin and its nanoparticles, formulated by a single emulsion-evaporation technique to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) with enhanced properties. Gallium 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin chloride (GaMeOTP) was synthesized from 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin and GaCl3. GaMeOTP showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against MAC104 and some clinical M. avium isolates. The synthesized Ga(III) porphyrin antimicrobial activity resulted in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Our study also demonstrated that F127 nanoparticles encapsulating GaMeOTP exhibited a smaller size than GaTP nanoparticles and a better duration of activity in MAC-infected macrophages compared to the free GaMeOTP. The nanoparticles were trafficked to endosomal compartments within MAC-infected macrophages, likely contributing to the antimicrobial activity of the drug.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number128645
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Volume62
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2022

Keywords

  • Cellular trafficking
  • Gallium methoxy tetraphenylporphyrin
  • Mycobacterium avium complex
  • Nanoparticle
  • Synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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