Synthesis of saponite based nanocomposites to improve the controlled oral drug release of model drug quinine hydrochloride dihydrate

S. Kumaresan, Radheshyam Rama Pawar, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Hari C. Bajaj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


In the present research study, a 2:1 type of smectite clay minerals, namely natural saponite (NSAP) and synthetic saponite (SSAP), was demonstrated for the first time to be controlled drug release host materials for the model drug quinine hydrochloride dihydrate (QU). The popular sol–gel hydrothermal technique was followed for the synthesis of saponite. The QU was ion exchanged and intercalated into an interlayered gallery of synthetic as well as natural saponite matrices. The developed QU-loaded hybrid composite materials along with the pristine materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method (BET) for surface area (SA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization of material results using DSC, FTIR and PXRD confirmed the presence of saponite clay mineral phases in the original and the synthesized saponite samples. Similarly, the drug-loaded composites confirmed the successful intercalation of QU drug on the natural and synthesized saponite matrices. The oral drug release performance of both nanocomposites along with pure quinine drug was monitored in sequential buffer environments at 37 ± 0.5°C. These composite hybrid materials showed the superior controlled release of QU in gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH = 7.4). QU release was best fitted in the Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic model and demonstrated a diffusion-controlled release from nanocomposite layered materials. The observed controlled drug release results suggest that the applied natural/synthetic saponite matrices have the potential to provide critical design parameters for the development of bioengineered materials for controlled drug release.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Controlled drug release
  • Nanocomposite
  • Oral drug delivery
  • Quinine hydrochloride dihydrate
  • Saponite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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