Systematic map of human–raptor interaction and coexistence research

Angeline C. Canney, Lauren M. McGough, Nate A. Bickford, Kenneth E. Wallen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Global raptor conservation relies on humans to establish and improve interaction and coexistence. Human–wildlife interaction research is well-established, but tends to focus on largebodied, terrestrial mammals. The scope and characteristics of research that explores human–raptor interactions are relatively unknown. As an initial step toward quantifying and characterizing the state of applied, cross-disciplinary literature on human–raptor interactions, we use established systematic map (scoping reviews) protocols to catalog literature and describe trends, identify gaps and biases, and critically reflect on the scope of research. We focus on the peer-reviewed (refereed) literature germane to human–raptor interaction, conflict, tolerance, acceptance, persecution and coexistence. Based on 383 papers retrieved that fit our criteria, we identified trends, biases, and gaps. These include a majority of research taking place within North America and Europe; disproportionately few interdisciplinary and social research studies; interactions focused on indirect anthropogenic mortality; and vague calls for human behavior changes, with few concrete steps suggested, when management objectives are discussed. Overall, we note a predominant focus on the study of ecological effects from human–raptor interactions rather than sociocultural causes, and suggest (as others have in various conservation contexts) the imperative of human behavioral, cultural, and political inquiry to conserve raptor species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number45
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Conservation social sciences
  • Human dimensions
  • Human–wildlife conflict
  • Illegal shooting
  • Persecution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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