Targeted, Site-Specific, Delivery Vehicles of Therapeutics for COVID-19 Patients. Brief Review

Nicholas Kipshidze, Patrick Iversen, Thomas R. Porter, Nodar Kipshidze, Fakiha Siddiqui, George Dangas, Jawed Fareed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Definitive pharmacological therapies for COVID-19 have yet to be identified. Several hundred trials are ongoing globally in the hope of a solution. However, nearly all treatments rely on systemic delivery but COVID-19 damages the lungs preferentially. The use of a targeted delivery approach is reviewed where engineered products are able to reach damaged lung tissue directly, which includes catheter-based and aerosol-based approaches. In this review we have outlined various target directed approaches which include microbubbles, extracellular vesicles including exosomes, adenosine nanoparticles, novel bio-objects, direct aerosol targeted pulmonary delivery and catheter-based drug delivery with reference to their relative effectiveness for the specific lesions. Currently several trials are ongoing to determine the effectiveness of such delivery systems alone and in conjunction with systemic therapies. Such approaches may prove to be very effective in the controlled and localized COVID-19 viral lesions in the lungs and potential sites. Moreover, localized delivery offered a safer delivery mode for such drugs which may have systemic adverse effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalClinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
StatePublished - 2020


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • antivirals
  • delivery vehicle
  • local drug delivery
  • microbubbles
  • targeted drug delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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