Test-Retest Reliability of Static and Countermovement Power Push-Up Tests in Young Male Athletes

Nicholas A. Bohannon, Zachary M. Gillen, Marni E. Shoemaker, Brianna D. McKay, Sydney M. Gibson, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate test-retest reliability of the static (SP) and countermovement (CMP) power push-up test in young male athletes. The secondary purpose was to compare the reliability of vertical ground reaction forces versus torque measurements during the power push-up tests. Twenty boys (age = 11.60 ± 1.15 years) performed SPs and CMPs on force plates with the knees as the fulcrum on 2 laboratory visits separated by 2-7 days. Performance measurements included peak force (PF), peak rate of force development (pRFD), peak torque (PT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), peak power (PP), average power (AP), eccentric impulse (ECC), and concentric impulse (CON) for both power push-up techniques. Age, maturity offset, height, body mass, fat-free mass, and estimated arm cross sectional area were obtained as measurements of growth. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), SEM, coefficients of variation, and minimum detectable changes (MDC) were reported. Only PF (ICC = 0.87-0.88, SEM = 59-84 N) and PT (ICC = 0.89-0.90, SEM = 60-88 N·m) showed acceptable reliability. Neither pRFD, pRTD, PP, AP, ECC, or CON were reliable outcomes. There were no meaningful differences between force-time and torque-time curve measurements. The SP showed slightly lower CVs (33-34%) than the CMP (CVs = 39-40%). Coaches and practitioners would need to see 58-71% increases in upper-body strength measurements evaluated via power push-up on force plates to be 95% confident that the improvements exceeded the measurement variability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2456-2464
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of strength and conditioning research
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020


  • strength
  • upper body
  • youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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