Testing protocols: Care of biological samples in a rural setting

Mary Beth Flanders Stepans, Susan L Wilhelm, T. Kim Rodehorst, Derek Smith, Clarann Weinert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study is to evaluate collection, transport, and storage protocols of urine and air allergen samples from infants in a rural setting. Infant urine and aeroallergen samples (n = 21) are collected in the home setting in rural areas where time and distance to the central laboratory is a consideration. Urine samples are analyzed using ELISA tests after being transported using three different techniques: (a) ambient temperature, (b) dry ice, and (c) packaged on dry ice and shipped commercially. Following initial ELISA testing for levels of cytokines, urine samples are frozen at -70 degrees Celsius for 6 months. Samples are then reanalyzed for levels of cytokines. Dust samples are analyzed for levels of aeroallergens, stored at 4 degrees for 6 months, and reanalyzed. The integrity of samples varies by biomarker, shipment temperature, and storage time, creating a high degree of variability in results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-22
Number of pages17
JournalClinical Nursing Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2009


  • Biomarkers
  • Infant
  • Respiratory
  • Rural
  • Sample collection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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