TGFβ3 signaling activates transcription of the LEF1 gene to induce epithelial mesenchymal transformation during mouse palate development

Ali Nawshad, Elizabeth D. Hay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

121 Scopus citations

Abstract

Epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of the medial edge epithelial (MEE) seam creates palatal confluence. This work aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which TGFβ3 brings about palatal seam EMT. We collected mRNA for PCR analysis from individual transforming MEE cells by laser microdissection techniques and demonstrated that TGFβ3 stimulates lymphoid-enhancing factor 1 (LEF1) mRNA synthesis in MEE cells. We show with antisense β-catenin oligonucleotides that up-regulated LEF1 is not activated by β-catenin in palate EMT. We ruled out other TGFβ 3 targets, such as RhoA and MEK1/2 pathways, and we present evidence using dominant-negative Smad4 and dominant-negative LEF1 showing that TGFβ3 uses Smads both to up-regulate synthesis of LEF1 and to activate LEF1 transcription during induction of palatal EMT. When phospho-Smad2 and Smad4 are present in the nucleus, LEF1 is activated without β-catenin. Our paper is the first to show that the Smad2,4/LEF1 complex replaces β-catenin/ LEF1 during activation of EMT in vivo by TGFβ3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1291-1301
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume163
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 22 2003

Keywords

  • LEF1 transcription
  • Palate confluence
  • Smad pathways
  • Smad2
  • β-catenin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

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