The association between influenza vaccine effectiveness and egg-based manufacturing technology: literature review and US expert consensus

Archana Chatterjee, Karita Ambrose, David H. Canaday, Shirley Delair, Ngozi Ezike, Victor C. Huber, Ravi Jhaveri, Ann Christine Nyquist, Abigail Sporer, Meera Varman, Renuga Vivekanandan, Radek Wojcik, Ravi Jandhyala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Influenza is associated with significant disease burden in the US and is currently best controlled by vaccination programs. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is low and may be reduced by several factors, including egg adaptations. Although non-egg-based influenza vaccines reportedly have greater VE in egg-adapted seasons, evidence for egg adaptations’ reduction of VE is indirect and dissociated, apart from two previous European consensuses. Methods: This study replicated the methodology used in a 2020 literature review and European consensus, providing an updated review and consensus opinion of 10 US experts on the evidence for a mechanistic basis for reduction of VE due to egg-based manufacturing methods. A mechanistic basis was assumed if sufficient evidence was found for underlying principles proposed to give rise to such an effect. Evidence for each principle was brought forward from the 2020 review and identified here by structured literature review and expert panel. Experts rated the strength of support for each principle and a mechanistic basis for reduction of VE due to egg-based influenza vaccine manufacture in a consensus method (consensus for strong/very strong evidence = ≥ 3.5 on 5-point Likert scale). Results: Experts assessed 251 references (from previous study: 185; this study: 66). The majority of references for all underlying principles were rated as strong or very strong supporting evidence (52–86%). Global surveillance, WHO candidate vaccine virus selection, and manufacturing stages involving eggs were identified as most likely to impact influenza VE. Conclusion: After review of extensive evidence for reduction of VE due to egg-based influenza vaccine manufacture, influenza experts in the US joined those in Europe in unanimous agreement for a mechanistic basis for the effect. Vaccine providers and administrators should consider use of non-egg-based influenza vaccine manufacture to reduce the risk of egg adaptations and likely impact on VE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-343
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

Keywords

  • Influenza
  • antigenic drift
  • egg adaptations
  • influenza vaccine
  • vaccine development
  • vaccine effectiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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