The cardiac wound healing response to myocardial infarction

Upendra Chalise, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Merry L. Lindsey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as evidence of myocardial necrosis consistent with prolonged ischemia. In response to MI, the myocardium undergoes a series of wound healing events that initiate inflammation and shift to anti-inflammation before transitioning to tissue repair that culminates in scar formation to replace the region of the necrotic myocardium. The overall response to MI is determined by two major steps, the first of which is the secretion of proteases by infiltrating leukocytes to breakdown extracellular matrix (ECM) components, a necessary step to remove necrotic cardiomyocytes. The second step is the generation of new ECM that comprises the scar; and this step is governed by the cardiac fibroblasts as the major source of new ECM synthesis. The leukocyte component resides in the middle of the two-step process, contributing to both sides as the leukocytes transition from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory and reparative cell phenotypes. The balance between the two steps determines the final quantity and quality of scar formed, which in turn contributes to chronic outcomes following MI, including the progression to heart failure. This review will summarize our current knowledge regarding the cardiac wound healing response to MI, primarily focused on experimental models of MI in mice. This article is categorized under: Cardiovascular Diseases > Molecular and Cellular Physiology Immune System Diseases > Molecular and Cellular Physiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1584
JournalWIREs mechanisms of disease
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • cardiac remodeling
  • heart attack
  • human
  • inflammation
  • mice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Cell Biology


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