The Changing Nature and Organization of Work: An Integrative Review of the Literature

Ellen Scully-Russ, Richard Torraco

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Economics, demographics, technology, and other factors are changing the composition and availability of jobs. Newer forms of freelance, contingent work, also known as gigs, are gradually eroding traditional jobs. A venue that affords employment opportunities for a growing number of gig workers has become known as the platform economy. Those engaged in the platform economy already represent 10.1% of the U.S. workforce. This article explores the factors that give rise to these new work structures and examines the new opportunities they offer for employment and income. The social and economic consequences of the growth of these new work structures, intended and unintended, for workers, consumers, employers, and the public are discussed. The article concludes with a synthesis model of human resource development (HRD) research and the implications of the growth of these new types of work for HRD theory and practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)66-93
Number of pages28
JournalHuman Resource Development Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • employee relations
  • gig workers
  • nature of work
  • platform economy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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