The child outcomes of a behavior model

J. Nelson, Kristin Hurley, Lori Synhorst, Michael H Epstein, Scott Stage, Jacquelyn Buckley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Within 3-tier behavioral models, universal interventions are expected to prevent the onset of problem behavior in a majority of children altogether and to sustain improvements in child outcomes by the selected and indicated interventions. A cohort longitudinal design was used to assess the extent to which a 3-tier model achieves these expected outcomes. The respective universal, selected, and indicated interventions included Behavior and Academic Support and Enhancement, First Step to Success, and MultiSystemic Therapy. A total of 407 children in Grades K-3 from 1 of 4 longitudinal cohorts participated. The results of 2-level linear growth analyses indicate that the 3-tier behavior model achieved the anticipated outcomes with respect to social behavior. The results, limitations, and implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-30
Number of pages24
JournalExceptional Children
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Behavior
  • Elementary
  • Interventions
  • Longitudinal
  • Three-tier

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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