The clarity and confusion offered by historical personal identity studies

Nikitah Okembe RA Imani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This literature review and analysis focuses on the historical reference group orientation and personal identity study material done on Blacks in the United States. It argues that these studies were critically flawed in the sense that they made inappropriate assumptions about the link between the two kinds of measures that are the respectivefoci of their inquiry (i.e., personal identity and group self-esteem). As a result, their conclusions and implications, in terms of the development of psychological and sociological theories based upon their findings, constitute a major obstacle to the ultimate and accurate understanding of the processes of development of Black self-esteem and collective spirit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)195-201
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Black Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'The clarity and confusion offered by historical personal identity studies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this