OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the effect of a "cough trick" technique on self-reported pain of children receiving routine immunizations. The strategy requires minimal equipment, time, or training for parents, children, and nursing staff members. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, unblinded, within-subject study of 68 children receiving prekindergarten (ages 4-5) or pre-junior high school (ages 11-13) immunizations was performed. Participants were recruited from an outpatient pediatric clinic at a large public hospital in the Midwest. The strategy required a single "warm-up" cough of moderate force, followed by a second cough that coincided with needle puncture. The principle outcome was self-reported pain, although parent and nurse report of pain was used to support the accuracy of self-report. Older participants and all nurses completed a measure of their satisfaction with the procedure. RESULTS: In the initial analysis, the procedure was found not to be effective. However, post hoc tests revealed that the procedure was effective at a statistically and clinically significant level for participants identified as Hispanic white or non-Hispanic white but not for those identified as non-Hispanic black. Participants and clinic nurses found the procedure acceptable and effective. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the cough trick can be an effective strategy for the reduction of pain for some children undergoing routine immunizations. However, additional research is needed to clarify the observed moderation by self-identified race.
- Cross-cultural comparison
- Pain management
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health