The effect of cyclophosphamide administration on the kidney of the rat

Okamura Takehiko, Emily M. Garland, Rodney J. Taylor, Sonny L. Johansson, Samuel M. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


In studies primarily designed to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan as a treatment for cyelophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in the rat, renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis were observed. Cyclophosphamide alone produced relatively mild renal changes. The combination of cyclophosphamide and intravesical instillation of acetic acid induced renal papillary necrosis (38 to 83% incidence) along with pyelonephritis, hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Chitosan, instilled in place of acetic acid, partially inhibited the induction of renal papillary necrosis. It appears that the presence of vesico-ureteral reflux with or without associated hydroureter and hydronephrosis is a prerequisite for cyclophosphamide-induced renal damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-276
Number of pages16
JournalToxicology Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1992


  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis
  • Hydronephrosis
  • Papillary necrosis
  • Renal toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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