Introduction: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chelating agent that is used for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and prophylaxis against cisplatin nephropathy. Recently, STS has also been used in the treatment of calciphylaxis, which is a disease characterized by calcification in the soft tissues with vascular calcification and thrombosis causing nonhealing ulcers. We proposed a rat model to evaluate whether STS has any possible beneficial effect on calcium nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Methods: Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. All animals received standard rat chow throughout the experiment. The animals were started on special drinking water containing 0.4% ethylene glycol plus 1.0% ammonium chloride for 7 days to induce crystalluria and nephrocalcinosis. The animals were then randomized to two groups. Group 1 served as a control and received daily intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Group 2 received daily intraperitoneal injections of STS solution. Special drinking water containing 0.8% ethylene glycol was continued during the treatment period. Results: Group 2 gained significantly less weight than group 1 (18.0% v 8.5%, p< 0.05). The amount of crystalluria in group 2 was much less than that in group 1, but did not reach statistical significance (0.7 v 4.2, p= 0.09). Degree of calcification noted in the kidneys was not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions: The current study did not reveal any significant benefit of STS administration on calcium stone disease. However, many more studies are necessary before the possibility of a beneficial effect is completely disproved.
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