The effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in patients with prediabetes: A secondary analysis of the D2d study

D2d Research Group

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4 Scopus citations


Aims: Low blood 25(OH)D level is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Additionally, individuals with prediabetes are at higher risk for CVD than individuals with normoglycemia. We investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on CVD outcomes in the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study, a large trial among adults with prediabetes. Methods: 2423 participants were randomized to 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or placebo and followed for median 3.0 years for new-onset diabetes. In pre-specified secondary analyses, we examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on composite Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE); expanded MACE (MACE + revascularization); atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk score; and individual CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). Cox models compared hazard ratios (HR) between the two groups on MACE and expanded MACE. Results: Mean age was 60 years, 45 % were women, 13 % had history of CVD. Twenty-one participants assigned to vitamin D and 12 participants assigned to placebo met the MACE outcome (HR 1.81, 95%CI 0.89 to 3.69). There were 27 expanded MACE outcomes in each group (HR 1.02, 95%CI, 0.59 to 1.76). There were no significant differences between vitamin D and placebo in individual CVD risk factors, but change in ASCVD risk score favored the vitamin D group (−0.45 %, 95%CI -0.75 to −0.15). Conclusions: In people with prediabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency and with intermediate CVD risk, vitamin D supplementation did not decrease MACE but had a small favorable effect on ASCVD risk score. Trial registration: D2d number, NCT01942694, prospectively registered September 16, 2013.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108230
JournalJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Cardiovascular disease risk reduction
  • MACE
  • Prediabetes
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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