The effect of vitamins C and E in (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids-enriched Artemia nauplii on growth, survival, and stress resistance of fresh water walleye Stizostedion vitreum larvae

S. Kolkovski, S. Czesny, C. Yackey, R. Moreau, F. Cihla, D. Mahan, K. Dabrowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of enriching Artemia nauplii with vitamin C (ascorbyl-6 palmitate) or vitamin E (aα-tocopherol acetate), 20% w/w, together with a mixture of concentrated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) on the growth, survival, and stress resistance of fresh water walleye Stizostedion vitreum larvae. Either cod liver oil (CLO) or EPA/DHA ethyl esters concentrate was used as lipid sources in the Artemia enrichment. Walleye larvae were fed ad libitum for 40 days. At day 40, submersion in salt water (25 g L-1) was performed to evaluate larvae resistance to stress. EPA and DHA levels in walleye juveniles fed EPA/DHA-enriched Artemia increased significantly, by an average of 650% compared with fish fed non-enriched Artemia. A significant increase was found for vitamins C (71.8 ± 1.0 and 42.7 ± 1.2 μg-1 wet weight (WW)) and E (17.0 ± 3.7 and 6.5 ± 0.9 μg g-1WW) concentrations in fish fed enriched and unenriched Artemia, respectively. Growth was comparable throughout treatments, whereas survival was significantly higher in fish fed CLO-enriched Artemia nauplii compared with fish fed Artemia nauplii enriched with EPA/DHA concentrate. The addition of vitamin C increased fish survival by 1.4-fold compared with fish fed Artemia enriched with only EPA/DHA concentrate. The survival of the latter was similar to control fish (Artemia without enrichment). The supplementation of vitamin E did not affect fish survival significantly. Stress tests revealed that the resistance of walleye larvae to salinity changes increased when Artemia enrichment was supplemented with vitamin C. However, walleye larvae fed CLO-enriched Artemia had the best performances in the stress test.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-206
Number of pages8
JournalAquaculture Nutrition
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Keywords

  • Artemia
  • Enrichment
  • N-3 HUFA
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Walleye

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science

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