The Effects of a Pedal-less Bicycle Intervention on Stability Scores among Preschool Aged Children

Andrew Shim, William Davis, David Newman, Bryce Abbey, Jaime Garafalo-Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine if an intervention program using pedal-less bicycles could improve stability scores among preschool aged children. Currently, there has not been literature demonstrating if this intervention will improve balance scores. Twenty healthy children, aged three to five years old were recruited to determine if pedal-less bicycles would improve balance scores after four weeks. This study used a two group experimental/control repeated measures design analyzed with mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variances to determine if Center of Pressure (CoP) and Limit of Stability (LoS) scores changed during the four weeks. Significant differences in mean performance were detected in the experimental group for LoS in the anterior plane (p =.012), in the left sagittal (p = 0.010), and in the right sagittal plane (p < 0.001), especially during week three and four. There was evidence of significant associations with pedal-less bicycle riding and mean stability scores in three to five year old children within four weeks of training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-190
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


  • balance training
  • bicycles
  • children
  • injury prevention
  • stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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