The effects of swimming training on arterial function, muscular strength, and cardiorespiratory capacity in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension

Alexei Wong, Yi Sub Kwak, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Won Mok Son, Ji Seok Kim, Song Young Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective:Aging is associated with progressive decreases in arterial health as well as muscular strength and cardiorespiratory capacity. It is crucial to prevent or reduce the negative effects of aging on vasculature, muscular, and cardiorespiratory function by implementing appropriate lifestyle interventions, such as exercise training. We examined the effects of a swimming (SWM) regimen on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), wave reflection (augmentation index [AIx]), muscle strength, and aerobic capacity in sedentary, postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension.Methods:One hundred participants (∼74 years of age) were recruited from multiple general practice centers. Using a parallel experimental design, participants were randomly assigned to either SWM (n = 52) or nonexercising control group (n = 48) for 20 weeks. Participants in the SWM group trained 3 to 4 days/week. Participants' carotid to radial PWV, BP, AIx, muscular strength, and cardiorespiratory capacity were measured at baseline and after 20 weeks of their assigned intervention.Results:There was a significant group × time interaction (P < 0.05) for carotid to radial PWV (Δ-1.2 m/s), AIx (Δ-4%), and systolic (Δ-9 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (Δ-9 mm Hg), which significantly decreased (P < 0.05); and strength (Δ3 kg) and cardiorespiratory capacity (Δ4 mL/kg/min), which significantly increased (P < 0.05) following SWM compared to no changes in control.Conclusions:SWM led to reductions in arterial stiffness, wave reflection, and BP while increasing strength and aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women with stage 2 hypertension. SWM may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of age-related vascular complications and declines in muscle strength and cardiorespiratory capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)653-658
Number of pages6
JournalMenopause
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

Keywords

  • Arterial stiffness
  • Blood pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Menopause
  • Swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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