The Enterobiinae subfam. nov. (Nematoda, Oxyurida) pinworm parasites of primates and rodents

J. P. Hugot, S. L. Gardner, S. Morand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Recent redescriptions of most members of the Oxyuridae Cobbold, 1864 parasitic in primates revealed that they share following derived characters: sexual dimorphism of lateral alae (single-crested in the males, double-crested in the females); in males a second pair of genital papillae always surrounded by strongly cuticularized rings; in females, uterine tube divided into 2 parts by a cellular wall forming a diaphragm. These characters are interpreted as synapomorphies, providing evidence that these taxa represent a monophyletic group, and we propose to classify them in a new subfamily of the Oxyuridae: the Enterobiinae subfam. nov. The Enterobiinae as recognized herein occurs in both Old World and New World Primates and rodents of the family Sciuridae (tribe Sciurini in the Holarctic region and tribe Xerini in the Ethiopian region). The new subfamily includes the following genera: Enterobius Leach, 1853; Colobenterobius Quentin, Betterton and Krishnasamy, 1979; Rodentoxyuris Quentin and Tenors 1974; Xeroxyuris Hugot, 1995; Lemuricola Chabaud and Petter, 1959; Protenterobius Inglis, 1961; Madoxyuris Chabaud, Brygoo and Petter, 1965; Trypanoxyuris Vevers, 1923; Hapaloxyuris Inglis and Cosgrove, 1965 and Paraoxyuronema Artigas, 1936. The genus Paraoxyuronema is revalidated as a subgenus of Trypanoxyuris due to its very specialized buccal structures. This genus groups all pinworm nematodes specific for primates of the family Atelidae, including: P. brachytelesi Artigas, 1937 occurring in Brachytels arachnoides; P. atelis (Cameron, 1929) occurring in Ateles spp., and P. duplicidens (Buckley, 1931) and P. lagothricis (Buckley, 1931), which are parasites of Lagothrix spp. Inglisoxyuris inglisi Chabaud, Petter and Golvan, 1961, included in the monospecific genus Inglisoxyuris and previously classified as a subgenus of the Lemuricola, does not share the characters of the new subfamily and, until its precise classification can be considered with more information, it is proposed to refer to this species as an Oxyuridae sensu lato. A diagnosis and a key of the genera included in the new subfamily are given.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-159
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1996


  • Buckleyenterobius
  • Colobenterobius
  • Enterobiinae subfam. nov.
  • Enterobius
  • Hapaloxyuris
  • Inglisoxyuris inglisi
  • Lemuricola
  • Madoxyuris
  • Nematoda
  • Oxyurida
  • Oxyuronema
  • P. atelis
  • P. duplicidens
  • P. lagothricis
  • Paraoxyuronema brachytelesi
  • Primates
  • Protenterobius
  • Rodentoxyuris
  • Trypanoxyuris
  • Xeroxyuris

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases


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