The Environmental Contribution to Redox Dyshomeostasis in Parkinson’s Disease

Carla Garza-Lombó, Rodrigo Franco

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


One of the major scientific questions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) research is what makes the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta vulnerable. Since the early 90s, oxidative stress has been suggested to promote the loss of dopaminergic cells. Oxidative stress is defined as an increase in the steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species. Cells have evolved antioxidant systems and a wide range of mechanisms for the removal or repair of oxidative damage, but disease follows when these processes are surpassed by oxidative damage. The three major risk factors linked to PD (aging, environmental exposures and genetic alterations) have been reported to promote oxidative damage. As such, post-mortem analysis of PD brains has demonstrated an increased accumulation of oxidized proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In this chapter, we provide an overview to redox homeostasis and the pathogenic mechanisms involved in the alterations in redox homeostasis that occurs in PD. We will discuss the intrinsic properties of dopaminergic neurons that make them vulnerable to oxidative damage, and the mechanisms by which alterations in the cellular redox homeostasis contribute to neurodegeneration. We will also overview how environmental toxicants disrupt redox homeostasis in neuronal cells and glial populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMolecular and Integrative Toxicology
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Number of pages34
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NameMolecular and Integrative Toxicology
ISSN (Print)2168-4219
ISSN (Electronic)2168-4235


  • Antioxidants
  • Oxidative stress
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Redox homeostasis
  • α-synuclein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Toxicology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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