4 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Growth-enhancing chemicals used by the beef and dairy industries may be bioavailable to humans via milk, meat, and other environmental matrices. This review evaluates the potential for environmental transport and bioavailability of the active chemical to humans. Recent Findings: Bovine somatostatin is detectable in milk; however, there is no evidence that the protein persists in the environment nor that it is active in humans. In contrast, steroids are transported through milk and meat to humans where they may exert biological activity. Furthermore, environmental matrices such as raw water and dust may also allow for the environmental transport and bioavailability of steroids to humans. Summary: Endogenous and exogenous steroids can be found in the meat, milk, and waste materials produced by cattle. While the concentrations may be low, exposure to these matrices, most notably dairy products made with whole milk, can be a source of exogenous steroids to humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-232
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent environmental health reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018


  • Beef
  • Bioavailability
  • Dairy
  • Exogenous hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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