Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) bridges the gap between standard endoluminal and extraluminal surgery and, as such, presents unique instrumentation challenges, including lack of stable platforms, loss of spatial orientation, and limited instrument tip maneuverability. The proper instrumentation remains to be established, and the incorporation of robotic technology will be essential moving forward. Flexible robotics has been applied to ureteroscopy and holds promise for NOTES. Miniature in vivo robots will potentially play a role. The current status and future implications of these technologies are reviewed.
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