The human kallikrein 10 promoter contains a functional retinoid response element

Musheng Zeng, Ying Zhang, Ishfaq Bhat, David E. Wazer, Hamid Band, Vimla Band

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Human kallikrein 10 (hK10) protein is expressed in normal breast but is significantly downregulated in a majority of invasive breast cancers. Thus, understanding how hK10 expression is regulated is of substantial significance. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of hK10 using a website software (TRANSFAC 3.0), which predicted three possible retinoic acid response elements (RAREs), RARE1 at -1041 (TGACCTCGTGATCC), RARE2 at -859 (TGACCTCCTATGA) and RARE3 at -765 (TGACCTCCTGTGA), each with a half-site of a canonical sequence (TGACCT; reverse complement AGGTCA). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and nucleotide competition analysis, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation of the native hK10 promoter, we demonstrated specific binding of RXR only to RARE1. The functional importance of RARE in the hK10 promoter was demonstrated by retinoid induction of hk10 promoter-reporters; furthermore, mutation of RARE1 but not of RARE2 or RARE3 abolished the induction of the reporter. Finally, we demonstrated the induction of hK10 mRNA and protein expression upon retinoid treatment of cells. In view of the correlation of the downregulation of hK10 mRNA and protein with breast cancer progression, these findings suggest a potential approach to restore hK10 expression in cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)741-747
Number of pages7
JournalBiological Chemistry
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Breast cancer
  • Kallikrein 10
  • RAR
  • RXR
  • Retinoic acid response element

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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