The Immunopathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Milankumar Patel, Farah Shahjin, Jacob D. Cohen, Mahmudul Hasan, Jatin Machhi, Heerak Chugh, Snigdha Singh, Srijanee Das, Tanmay A. Kulkarni, Jonathan Herskovitz, Douglas D. Meigs, Ramesh Chandra, Kenneth S. Hettie, R. Lee Mosley, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Howard E. Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Virus-specific immunity controls infection, transmission and disease severity. With respect to disease severity, a spectrum of clinical outcomes occur associated with age, genetics, comorbidities and immune responses in an infected person. Dysfunctions in innate and adaptive immunity commonly follow viral infection. These are heralded by altered innate mononuclear phagocyte differentiation, activation, intracellular killing and adaptive memory, effector, and regulatory T cell responses. All of such affect viral clearance and the progression of end-organ disease. Failures to produce effective controlled antiviral immunity leads to life-threatening end-organ disease that is typified by the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The most effective means to contain SARS-CoV-2 infection is by vaccination. While an arsenal of immunomodulators were developed for control of viral infection and subsequent COVID-19 disease, further research is required to enable therapeutic implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberfuab035
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • ACE2
  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • cytokine storm
  • immunity
  • mutant viral variants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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