Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has the capacity to regenerate motion for individuals with spinal cord injuries. However, it is not straightforward to determine the stimulation parameters to generate a coordinated movement. Musculoskeletal models can provide a noninvasive simulation environment to estimate muscle force and activation timing sequences for a variety of tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal model of the feline hindlimb for simulations to determine stimulation parameters for intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (a method of FES). Additionally, we aimed to explore the differences in modeling neuromuscular compartments compared with representing these muscles as a single line of action. When comparing the modeled neuromuscular compartments of biceps femoris, sartorius, and semimembranosus to representations of these muscles as a single line of action, we observed that modeling the neuromuscular compartments of these three muscles generated different force and moment generating capacities when compared with single muscle representations. Differences as large as 4 N m (∼400% in biceps femoris) were computed between the summed moments of the neuromuscular compartments and the single muscle representations. Therefore, modeling neuromuscular compartments may be necessary to represent physiologically reasonable force and moment generating capacities of the feline hindlimb.
- Functional electrical stimulation
- Hamstring muscles
- Intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Physiology (medical)