This article reviews current research on the long-term outcomes of children exposed to drugs in utero. Areas reviewed include alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and multiple drug use. Literature on the outcomes of children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was found to be the most extensive. There was a paucity of research on the long-term outcomes of children exposed to cocaine, marijuana, heroin, and multiple drugs. Methodological issues related to the analysis and interpretation of longitudinal studies are discussed. Differential intervention efforts based primarily on knowledge of a child's intrauterine exposure to drugs was unsupported by available evidence. It is recommended that early childhood special educators continue to utilize an ecological model to assess and intervene with the children exposed to drugs in utero who need special education services and with their families.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health