HIV encephalitis is the common pathologic correlate of HIV-dementia (HAD). HIV-infected brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP) (macrophages and microglia) are reservoirs for persistent viral infection. When activated, MP contribute to neuronal damage. Such activated and virus-infected macrophages secrete cellular and viral factors, triggering neural destructive immune responses. Our Center's laboratories have begun to decipher the molecular and biochemical pathways for MP-mediated neuronal damage in HAD. This review will discuss the salient clinical and pathological features of HAD and highlight the recent advances made, by our scientists and elsewhere, in unraveling disease mechanisms, including the role of chemokines and their receptors in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 encephalitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-241
Number of pages9
JournalFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Dec 1999


  • CXCR4
  • HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor dysfunction (HAD)
  • HIV-1 encephalitis
  • Mononuclear phagocyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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