The Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety Scale (PASAS): Scale development and psychometric analysis

Peter J. Norton, Debra A. Hope, Justin W. Weeks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Research suggests that social anxiety may be elicited in athletic or sporting situations, resulting in decreased physical activity due to avoidance behavior. Given the myriad physical and psychological health consequences of a non-active lifestyle, valid assessment of social anxiety and avoidance in this domain is warranted. However, none of the common measures of social anxiety appear to assess social anxiety in physical activity or sporting domains. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a brief measure of social anxiety in physical activities and sports. A 16-item self-report questionnaire, the Physical Activity and Sport Anxiety Scale (PASAS), was extracted from a larger pool on empirical and theoretical grounds. The PASAS demonstrated excellent internal consistency across a number of samples, and excellent temporal stability. The PASAS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity, and is related to self-perceived performance biases as postulated by cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-382
Number of pages20
JournalAnxiety, Stress and Coping
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Athletics
  • Scale development
  • Social anxiety
  • Sport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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