Objective: To evaluate whether a financial incentive changed research patterns among residents over a 12-year period. Methods: At our institution, beginning July 2016, any resident work that led to a PubMed citation was awarded $1,000. A review of the PubMed database and the regional meeting of the South Central Section of AUA (SCS/AUA) presentation itineraries were used to quantify and qualify the participation in research by these residents before and after introduction of the financial incentive. Results: Scholarly activity from thirty out of thirty possible residents was evaluated. The monetary incentive resulted in increased production post-incentive (6.33) vs pre-incentive (2.44) in average total authorship participation published to PubMed per year (P =.0125). The average number of PubMed primary authorships per resident per year increased from 0 in July 2007-June 2008 to 0.7 in July 2018-June 2019, displaying upward trajectory. Average primary authorship of research produced per year presented at SCS/AUA and published to PubMed increased postincentive (9.00) vs pre-incentive (4.89) (P =.0479). More review articles and less basic science research were published after the incentive. Conclusion: Offering financial incentives to urology residents increased publications and meaningful participation in research.
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