Academic surgeons make various important decisions about their careers; however, little is known about the relationships between fellowship training, career development issues, and academic responsibilities. Surgeon members of the Association for Surgical Education were surveyed about career development issues. Three hundred ninetytwo (75.2%) surgeons responded. An exploratory factor analysis of the career development issues revealed four career development factors. Statistically significant differences were found between types of fellowship training and the career development factors. Nonfellowship-trained and clinic alfellowship-trained surgeons spend their time similarly to physicians in other specialties. Researchfellowship-trained surgeons spent significantly more time doing research, had fewer concerns about professional confidence, and expressed greater satisfaction with their careers. There is a relationship between career development issues, fellowship training, and type of fellowship training. Attention to these issues may be important in recruiting and retaining academic surgeons.
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