Abstract

Multiple epidemiologic observations and meta-analysis clearly indicate the link between alcohol abuse and the incidence and progression of prostate cancer; however, the mechanism remains enigmatic. Recently, it was found that ethanol (EtOH) induces disorganization of the Golgi complex caused by impaired function of the largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin (GOLGB1), which, in turn, alters the Golgi docking of resident Golgi proteins. Here, it is determined that in normal prostate cells, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the known regulator of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, while its kinase, glycogen synthase kinase b (GSK3b), primarily resides in the Golgi. Progression of prostate cancer is accompanied by Golgi scattering, translocation of GSK3b from the Golgi to the cytoplasm, and the cytoplasmic shift in HDAC6 localization. Alcohol dehydrogenase–generated metabolites induces Golgi disorganization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells, facilitates tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model and activates anchorage-independent proliferation, migration, and cell adhesion. EtOH-treated cells demonstrate reduced giantin and subsequent cytoplasmic GSK3b; this phenomenon was validated in giantin-depleted cells. Redistribution of GSK3b to the cytoplasm results in phosphorylation of HDAC6 and its retention in the cytoplasm, which, in turn, stimulates deacetylation of HSP90, AR import into the nucleus, and secretion of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Finally, the relationship between Golgi morphology, HDAC6 cytoplasmic content, and clinicopathologic features was assessed in human prostate cancer patient specimens with and without a history of alcohol dependence. Implications: This study demonstrates the importance of alcohol-induced Golgi fragmentation in the activation of AR-mediated proliferation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-237
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Cancer Research
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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