The role of pubertal timing and temperamental vulnerability in adolescents' internalizing symptoms

Lisa J. Crockett, Gustavo Carlo, Jennifer M. Wolff, Meredith O. Hope

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


This longitudinal study examined the joint role of pubertal timing and temperament variables (emotional reactivity and self-regulation) in predicting adolescents' internalizing symptoms. The multiethnic sample included 1,025 adolescent girls and boys followed from age 11 to age 15 (M age = 11.03 years at Time 1). In structural equation models, age 11 measures of pubertal timing, emotional reactivity, and self-regulation and their interactions were used to predict adolescents' internalizing behavior concurrently and at age 15. Results indicated that, among girls, early pubertal timing, higher emotional reactivity, and lower self-regulation predicted increased internalizing behavior. In addition, self-regulation moderated the effect of pubertal timing such that effects of earlier timing on subsequent internalizing were seen primarily among girls with relatively poor self-regulation. Among boys, higher levels of emotional reactivity and lower self-regulation predicted increased internalizing, but there were no effects of pubertal timing. After controlling for Time 1 internalizing symptoms, only self-regulation predicted change in internalizing symptoms. Discussion focuses on the possible interplay of temperament and pubertal development in predicting internalizing problems during adolescence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-389
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopment and psychopathology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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