The safety of intraocular ketorolac in rabbits

Eyal Margalit, Lance J. Kugler, Matthew V. Brumm, Jane L. Meza, Uday B. Kompella, Edith R. Escobar, Gerald R. Christensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. To assess the safety of a possible substitute treatment for intraocular steroid injections, intraocular injections of ketorolac tromethamine, one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, were performed in rabbits. METHODS. Either 0.5% or 0.25% preservative-free ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution (0.1 mL) was injected into the vitreous of the right eye of 15 rabbits. Physiologic saline solution (BSS; Alcon, Ft. Worth, TX) was injected into the left eye of each rabbit as a control. A standard electroretinogram and intraocular pressure measurements were obtained before injection, and repeated 1 day and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after injection. After 4 weeks, the rabbits were euthanatized and the retinas examined by light and electron microscopy. Differences in the electroretinograms, intraocular pressure, and histopathology between the two eyes were recorded. Further, the elimination half-life of the drug in the vitreous was assessed. RESULTS. There were no statistically significant differences in electroretinograms, or intraocular pressure measurements obtained between the ketorolac-injected eyes and the control eyes. The half life of the drug was measured to be 2.3 hours. No histopathologic changes were observed in study eyes compared with control eyes. CONCLUSIONS. Preservative-free ketorolac tromethamine is nontoxic to the retinas of rabbits when injected intravitreally and could be considered as an alternative to intraocular steroid injections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2093-2099
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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