The linear sequence of eukaryotic genomes is arranged in a specific manner within the three-dimensional nuclear space. Interactions between distant sites partition the genome into domains of highly associating chromatin. Interaction domains are found in many organisms, but their properties and the principles governing their establishment vary between different species. Topologically associating domains (TADs) extending over large genomic regions are found in mammals and Drosophila melanogaster, whereas other types of contact domains exist in lower eukaryotes. Here we review recent studies that explore the mechanisms by which long distance chromatin interactions determine the 3D organization of the genome and the relationship between this organization and the establishment of specific patterns of gene expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology